**STARDRIVE PROPULSION AND NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
**

**HOW THRUST IS MADE BY**

**STARDRIVE PROPULSION**

**Newton’s Three Laws of Motion are:**

- Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. This is also called the law of inertia.
- The relationship between an object’s mass
**m**, it’s acceleration**a**, and the applied force**F**is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors. In this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

An excellent discussion of these three laws is on Wikipedia at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s_laws_of_motion

**How It Works:**

The StarDrive Propulsion System™ consists of two primary systems. The first includes the acceleration ramps and the counter-rotating capture disk drive assembly and housing. The second includes the capture disks, thrust weights and thrust weight cavities within the capture disks. When the capture disks are counter-rotated about the common axis, both the capture disks and the thrust weights acquire momentum. Since the thrust weights are not physically connected to the capture disks, they have their own momentum (called P). Because they are spinning, that momentum is known as angular momentum.

The thrust weight has its distance from the axis of rotation reduced as it goes over the acceleration ramp. Its velocity (v) and momentum[1] are thus decreased. This reduction in speed and momentum is apparent in every analysis of thrust weight motion and is equal to the force needed to compress the maximum radius of gyration, R_{1} (the outer orbital path) to the smaller radius of gyration, R_{2.} (the inner orbital path).

Outer Path of Thrust Masses (R_{1}) **→ ** Inner Path (R_{2})

This is where Newton’s 2^{d} Law of Motion, F = ma, comes into play. The force needed to reduce the distance between the thrust weight and the axis of rotation is supplied motor that drives the capture disks that push the thrust weights over the acceleration ramps. This action reduces the radius of gyration and changes the direction of the motion of the thrust weight. This change of direction is opposed by the inertia and centrifugal force of the moving thrust weight. The acceleration ramp is “pushed” by the inertia and centrifugal force of thrust weight each time a thrust weight goes over the acceleration ramp. Each push is a small one but. because there are many thrust weights and the capture disks are spinning very fast, there are many small “pushes”. They add up quickly to a big PUSH which is the THRUST needed to move whatever is attached to the StarDrive Propulsion device.

What follows is the math that works this all out.

**Comparison of Centripetal Force Change:**

Using the formula for determining Centripetal Acceleration, A_{c} = v^{2}/R (v=2pi x gyrational circumference r/time of rotation ) to evaluate the difference in the centripetal force at R_{1} and R_{2} shows the change that takes place when a thrust weight encounters an acceleration ramp. For this demonstration the physical parameters of the device are:

Physical Parameters:

Radius_{1} = 2.05″ (Outer orbit)

Radius_{2} = 1.675 (R_{1} – acceleration ramp height) (Inner Orbit)

Ramp height .375″ (Distance through which the thrust weights are accelerated)

Thrust weight-ramp interaction length .25″

Thrust weight mass .0009lbs

Maximum RPM 1725 (28.75 RPS)

Single Rotation Period .03478s

**Maximum Centripetal Acceleration Calculation**: A_{c} = v^{2 }/ R

Radius_{1} = 2.05″

Circumference = 3.14159 x 4.1″ = 12.88″

Single Rotation Time = 60/1725 = .03478s

v_{1} = 12.88″/.03478s

= 370.33″/s

v_{1}^{2} = 137142.66″/s

A_{c1} = 137142.66/2.05

= 66,898.86″s/s

**Minimum Centripetal Acceleration Calculation**:

R_{2} = 1.675″

3.1415926 X 3.35 = 10.52

T = .03478 s

v_{2}^{2} = (10.52″/.03478s)^{2
} = 302.472″/s

A_{c2} = (302.472)^{2}/R_{2
} = 91,489.725/1.675

= 54,665.76″/s/s

**Change in Centripetal Acceleration: ****A _{C}**

A_{c1} = 66,898.86″s/s

– A_{c2} = 54,665.76″/s/s

**A _{C} 12,233.1″/s/s**.

The amount of force needed to decrease the amount of A_{c} can be determined by the application of Newton’s Second Law, f = ma or, f = .0009 x 12,233.1″/s/s, which is

**f = 11.009″ lbs/s/s.**

The thrust weights are continuously undergoing centripetal acceleration. At the A_{c1} position the force acting upon each thrust weight is also determined by the application of Newton’s Second Law. The mass of the thrust weights in the demonstration device is ~ .0009 lbs or ~ .04 N

SOLVING FOR f_{1} at R_{1}

f_{1} = .0009 x 66,898.86″s/s

= 60.209″ lbs /s/s

SOLVING FOR f_{2} at R_{2}

f_{2} = .0009 x 54,665.76″/s/s

= 49.199′ lbs /s/s

f = 60.209″ lbs /s/s

– 49.199′ lbs /s/s

**f = 11.010″ lbs**

With this device configuration, this value is the maximum amount of thrust of each thrust weight-acceleration encounter that is made available to propel the StarDrive Propulsion System and any vehicle to which it is attached.

^{1}Both its straight line momentum known as P and its angular momentum called L.